Data on decentralized blockchain protocols is very secure and almost immutable. However, most dapps and smart contracts require information from the real-world to trigger a certain action on the blockchain. Since blockchains cannot access off-chain data, a secure, trustworthy bridge between off-chain and on-chain data is needed. Blockchain oracles serve as bridges between blockchains and outside world and provide smart contracts with external information. Blockchain oracles can be centralized or decentralized and may leverage reputation, voting & other trust models.
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Blockchain Oracles Explained
Binance Academy shared a good introduction to blockchain oracles.
Research paper on trustworthy blockchain oracles
The authors provide a review and comparison of existing blockchain oracle solutions. Additional research challenges are presented.
Linda Xie - DeFi Oracles
This curated list of oracle methods and contract addresses includes the most prominent DeFi projects.